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Rather than enforcing her gender identity, the medical intervention compounded the trauma caused by her medical condition.

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Part II discusses the history and current preferred "treatment" for intersex conditions. This strict male/female delineation is not used in all countries though. Throughout the case, the court refers to Ramos with female pronouns and so I will also refer to her as female. He concluded that chromosomes did not make any difference in gender differentiation, and that children could be successfully reared as either sex irrespective of their anatomy or chromosomal make-up. Gonzalez Translation, supra note 95, at 15; see Greenberg & Chase, supra note 18. Ramos Summary, supra note 54, at 1; Translation of Sentencia No. Money's solution was to perform a sex change operation on baby Bruce and to have his parents raise him as a girl named Brenda. T-551/99 (Colom.), at 1 [hereinafter Cruz Translation] (on file with author). Ramos Summary, supra note 54, at 1; Cruz Translation, supra note 100, at 1. During Brenda's childhood, Money removed all of "his" internal reproductive organs. As Brenda approached puberty "she" was given female hormones to trigger breast development and other female secondary characteristics. As a teenager, Reimer rejected his assigned sex and refused to take his female hormones.

He reported engaging in typically male behavior throughout his teens.

Based on this theory, babies born with ambiguous genitals or small penises and baby boys who were accidentally castrated were surgically altered and raised as females. The names in all three decisions were changed by the Colombian court to maintain the privacy of the individuals involved. The court refers to the cases by number and initials. T-477/95 (Colom.), at 11-12 [hereinafter Gonzalez Translation] (on file with author).

The publicity caused by Diamond and Sigmundson's article led to a biography of Reimer by John Colapinto. This Article will refer to each case with a fictitious surname to avoid confusion.

Money's research was published throughout the world, convincing doctors that gender was a societal construct, and therefore intersexed children could be raised unconditionally as either male or female. E-Mail from Cheryl Chase, founding director of ISNA (March 19, 2002) (on file with author).

He believed that the only way to ensure that both the family and the child would accept the child's gender was if the child's genitals looked clearly male or female. For purposes of this Article, I referred to my own translation as well as to summaries of the cases forwarded in an e-mail by Cheryl Chase, written by Sydney Levy, ISNA Board of Directors (March 19, 2002) (on file with author).

Using other people’s research or ideas without giving them due credit is plagiarism.