The earliest article is in the May 12, 1978 issue of the "Willamette Valley Observer" (Eugene, Oregon, USA).
These were meant to be observed on a phonograph turntable. If you happen to have a set of "Duchamp Rotoreliefs", you are in luck because they are now very valuable.Jerry Andrus invented the multi-zone rotating spiral (with alternating expanding and contracting zones).The multiple zones produce a much stronger aftereffect than a simple spiral.Most people have probably experienced the motion aftereffect without knowing that there is a name for it.I remember a hike my brother and I took to the bottom of the Grand Canyon after a night of too-little sleep.Once the applet has been detached, the button label changes to "Attach" and clicking the button causes the applet to re-attach to the Web page. Above a certain point, increasing the speed will have no effect due to your computer's limitations.
The Speed Control varies the speed of the animation in a range of 1 through 120 RPM. The illusion is an example of the "Motion Aftereffect" phenomenon.
I soon realized that rather than going to the trouble of having a small and a large disc I could just photographically reverse one of them and paste it on the other.
This I did and ended up with three zones on the one disc.
As long as all the motion-detectors are in balance with each other, you do not perceive any motion.
When strongly stimulated by motion in a particular direction, the subset of motion detectors that respond to that motion become fatigued.
Starting with that in mind, at least 1977 or earlier, I rigged up a way to make the original single spiral.