Relative dating archeology
In this 7,000 year span, we see the first colonization of the altiplano, the settling of permanent villages, and the rise of chiefly societies that formed the basis of Tiwanaku, one of the high civilizations of the New World.
When humans started draining and plowing up the natural topsoil for planting, they exposed the buried carbon to oxygen, creating carbon dioxide and releasing it into the air.During photosynthesis, plants absorb carbon dioxide from the air and transform it into sugars, carbohydrates, and other carbon-based molecules.Some of those carbon products transfer from the roots to symbiotic fungi and soil microbes, which store the carbon in soil as humus.World population was at a few million people, likely below 5 million. Less than a year after these results were published another study showed that the stone circles had been preceded by wooden circles of 6-metre pine 'totem poles' dated to 8,000 B. [Based on: by Graham Hancock and Santha Faiia, Heaven's Mirror, Quest For The Lost Civilization, p. C.] in which herding and agriculture came into use, is called the 'New Stone Age' or [in Latin] the 'Neolithic Age.' "8,000 B. - Civilization / Ur - "The Ur culture developed during the Neolithic Age and became global in expanse by 8,000 B. According to popular belief: 'Where the Sumerians came from is still disputed.[....]" - "Traditional date when the continent of Atlantis sank beneath the waves. and is perhaps the oldest continuously occupied city on Earth." 9,000 B. - Tools / North America - "The Wenachee site, dated to 11,000 B. and located in the Inner Columbia River Basin, presents evidence of a new assemblage of stone tools in the Americas at their earliest known horizon." [Links: 1 - # 5]), has been identified genetically in southeastern Turkey, according to a report in the journal Science. article (Fossils show ancient use of chili peppers [about 6,100 years ago]), p. Typologically, the language of Sumer resembles Chinese, which suggests an eastern origin.The site spans an area of about 25 square kilometres, 35 metres deep, which, until as late as 6,900 years ago, was entirely above water.
About 2,000 possibly man-made artifacts have been dredged and carbon-dated from 8,500 to 9,500 years old."*Trivia: "Stone Age rock shelters with paintings at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh are the earliest known traces of human life in India.
Animal husbandry made things worse, as domesticated animals began grazing grasslands down to the earth.
In places wehere the ground is bare - from overgrazing or from the common practice of leaving fields unplanted for part of the year - photosynthesis stops. Lal calculates that land use changes such as these have stripped 70 billion to 100 billion tons of carbon from the world's soils and pumped it into the earth's atmosphere, oceans, and lakes since the dawn of agriculture. - Geography Trivia / Ireland - "The shape and landscape of present-day Ireland—an island of 27,100 square miles [70,200 square kilometers]—were formed 10,000 years ago when Atlantic Ocean glaciers slowly began their retreat.
These cultural developments from the Archaic (ca.9,500- 4000 years ago) through the Formative Period (ca.
3200-2000 years ago) attest to a long period of economic and social intensification, a trend that is common throughout the world.
Radiocarbon dates place the beginning of the occupation at ca. At the time, the site, now only five miles from the Gulf Coast near Tallahassee, was nearly 100 miles inland, and Florida's landscape resembled Africa's savannahs.