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It was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in its early phase.
Human rights violations, religious persecution and allegations that Sudan had been a safe haven for terrorists isolated the country from most of the international community.The Kingdom of Kush is mentioned in the Bible as having saved the Israelites from the wrath of the Assyrians, although disease among the besiegers was the main reason for the failure to take the city.The war that took place between Pharaoh Taharqa and the Assyrian king Sennacherib was a decisive event in western history, with the Nubians being defeated in their attempts to gain a foothold in the Near East by Assyria.During the 1500s, a people called the Funj conquered much of Sudan and several other black African groups settled in the south, including the Dinka, Shilluk, Nuer and Azande.British conquered Sudan in 1874 and after Britain occupied Egypt in 1882 it took over Sudan in 1898, ruling the country in conjunction with Egypt.Anthropological and archaeological research indicate that during the predynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were ethnically, and culturally nearly identical, and thus, simultaneously evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC.
The Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile and White Nile, and the Atbarah River and the Nile River.
During Classical Antiquity, the Nubian capital was at Meroë.
In ancient Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as Ethiopia (a term also used earlier by the Assyrians when encountering the Nubians).
A missionary sent by Byzantine empress Theodora arrived in Nobatia and started preaching Christianity about 540 AD. However, Makuria was a Melkite Christian, unlike Nobatia and Alodia.
After many attempts at military conquest failed, the Arab commander in Egypt concluded the first in a series of regularly renewed treaties known as al-baqṭ (pactum) with the Nubians that governed relations between the two peoples for more than 678 years.
In 1995, the United Nations (UN) imposed sanctions against it.