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The prevalence of CKD was higher in Bangkok, the Northern and Northeastern regions than in the Central and Southern regions. age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, hyperuricaemia, history of kidney stones and the use of traditional medicines) were associated with CKD.
However, albuminuria measurement was not confirmed and adjusting for persistent positive rates resulted in the prevalence of 14.4%.Air pollutants of concern include traffic-related air pollution, including particulate matter in respirable coarse and fine size fractions.There are no critical studies to date into associations between knowledge, awareness, and attitudes in using proper respiratory masks and prevalence of respiratory symptoms among urban street vendors in Thailand.An accurate estimate of CKD magnitude is crucial for its ranking as a public health priority in Thailand.Furthermore, accurate data are essential for adequate allocation of educational resources and awareness programs, designing screening strategies and planning of nephrological resources for the care of CKD patients.Results suggested knowledge, awareness, and attitudes concerning proper PPE use needs to be increased among street vendors in Bangkok, Thailand.
Previous reports of chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevalence in Thailand varied from 4.3% to 13.8%.
This is because the study enrolled only Thai Air Force members aged 19 to 65 years and screened for macroproteinuria.
However, some of the low prevalence rates of CKD in Thailand that are reported in the literature seem at odds with the relatively high prevalence rates for treated ESRD of 220–286 per million population .
the IRB of the Faculty of Medicine at Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, the IRB of the Ministry of Public Health and as a part of the Global SEEK program by Partners Healthcare IRB in Boston, USA. Northern, Northeastern, Central and Southern) and Bangkok (metropolitan) were treated as strata.
Stratified-cluster random sampling was applied to selected subjects.
Subjects were excluded if blood or urine specimens were not taken.