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The earth orbiting the sun is one periodic motion that repeats itself that we use to measure time.The rotation of the earth on its axis is another motion we use to measure time.
"Our new figure of 226 million miles is accurate to within 6 percent," Mark Reid, a Harvard-Smithsonian astronomer and leader of the team that made the measurements, said in a statement. Working together as a single unit, the antennae can measure motions in the distant universe with unprecedented accuracy.He also showed that stars farther from the center have a combined gravitational force of zero.Those stars pull in all different and opposite directions, canceling out one another.Therefore, the stars closer to the center experience a gravitational pull towards the center and they move at greater speeds, since there is more force acting upon them.Conversely, more distant stars have less force acting upon them and in turn, they travel at lower speeds.One definition of time is the continuum of experience in which events pass from the future through the present to the past. How about, the time as given by a clock; "do you know what time it is?
"; "the time is 10 o'clock."That still doesn't tell us what the clock is measuring. Time is the fourth coordinate that is required (along with three spatial dimensions) to specify a physical event.
Using a radio telescope system that measures celestial distances 500 times more accurately than the Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers plotted the motion of the Milky Way and found that the sun and its family of planets were orbiting the galaxy at about 135 miles per second.
That means it takes the solar system about 226 million years to orbit the Milky Way and puts the most precise value ever determined on one of the fundamental motions of the Earth and its sun, said James Moran of Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass.
The mass is located within the circle of the Sun's orbit through the galaxy is about 100 billion times the mass of the Sun.
Based on a distance of 30,000 light years and a speed of 220 km/s, the Sun's orbit around the center of the Milky Way once every 225 million years. The Sun has orbited the galaxy, more than 20 times during its 5 billion year lifetime. Some of the galaxy's mass is inside the sun's orbit and some of it is outside.
Sometimes these motions depart from exact repetition even if just by a second.